In the Joint Communiqué of the Government of Japan and the Government of the People's Republic of China (1972), the People's Republic of China renounced its demand for war reparations from Japan.
China refused war reparations from Japan in the 1972 Joint Communiqué. Japan gave official development assistance (ODA), amounting to 3 trillion yen (US$30 billion). According to estimates, Japan accounts for more than 60 percent of China's ODA received.
The Civil Liberties Act of 1988 gave surviving Japanese Americans reparations and a formal apology by President Reagan for their incarceration during World War II.
But after World War II, Herbert Bix explains in “Hirohito and the Making of Modern Japan,” that “Virtually the only reparations that Japan would ever have to pay—a mere 1.02 billion dollars worth of goods and 'services' spread out over many years—were to the Philippines, Indonesia, Burma, and (later) South Vietnam.”
Those who lost the war were therefore required to pay the victors. The only Allied country who won but paid compensation was the USA, to Japan.
After World War II, according to the Potsdam conference held between July 17 and August 2, 1945, Germany was to pay the Allies US$23 billion mainly in machinery and manufacturing plants. Dismantling in the west stopped in 1950. Reparations to the Soviet Union stopped in 1953.
Germany started making reparations payments to Holocaust survivors back in the 1950s, and continues making payments today. Some 400,000 Jews who survived the Nazis were still alive in 2019. That year, Germany paid $564 million to the Claims Conference, which handles the payments.
Spokesman Hashimoto: The important thing is that the Prime Minister of Japan expressed feelings of deep remorse and stated heartfelt apologies to the people who suffered in World War II directly to the Prime Minister of the United Kingdom.
They are the Soviet Union ($678.8 million), Britain ($325.5 million), China ($116.1 million), Indonesia ($26.4 million) and Iran ($23.3 million). Since World War II, the bulk of foreign debt can be attributed to military assistance, nonmilitary foreign aid and trade financing.
With Singapore's full independence from Malaysia on 9 August 1965, the Singapore government made another request to Japan for reparations and an apology. On 25 October 1966, Japan agreed to pay S$50 million in compensation, half of which was a grant and the rest as a loan.
Germany is finally paying off World War I reparations, with the last 70 million euro (£60m) payment drawing the debt to a close. Interest on loans taken out to the pay the debt will be settled on Sunday, the 20th anniversary of German reunification.
The legislation admitted that government actions were based on "race prejudice, war hysteria, and a failure of political leadership." By 1992, the U.S. government eventually disbursed more than $1.6 billion (equivalent to $3.67 billion in 2021) in reparations to 82,219 Japanese Americans who had been incarcerated.
Germany didn't ultimately pay off its WWI debts until 2010. Germany was also responsible for paying reparations after World War II. Although the total debt was estimated at over $300 billion, Germany was responsible for paying about $3 billion, according to the London Agreement on German External Debts in 1952.
Today, only 11% of the Japanese express a favorable opinion of China, while 14% of the Chinese say they have a positive view of Japan. In both countries positive views of the other nation have decreased since 2006.
The commission determined that President Franklin D. Roosevelt's executive order to incarcerate Japanese Americans was spurred by racism and wartime hysteria — not military necessity — and recommended that reparations be paid to survivors.
Then in 1956, Japan and the Philippines signed a Reparations Agreement, in accordance with Article 14 (a) 1 of the Peace Treaty. Under that Agreement, Japan provided the Philippines with services and goods valued at the equivalent of 550 million dollars.
Which Country Owes the Most Money to China? Venezuela is the country with the greatest sovereign debt exposure to China, in terms of direct lending (excluding portfolio holdings), according to AidData's 2021 study, totaling $74.7 billion.
China has steadily accumulated U.S. Treasury securities over the last few decades. As of October 2021, the Asian nation owns $1.065 trillion, or about 3.68%, of the $28.9 trillion U.S. national debt, which is more than any other foreign country except Japan.
Foreign governments who have purchased U.S. treasuries include China, Japan, Brazil, Ireland, the U.K. and others. China represents 29 percent of all treasuries issued to other countries, which corresponds to $1.18 trillion. Japan holds the equivalent of $1.03 trillion in treasuries.
Unfortunately, these cranes were not accompanied by an apology from Obama for the atomic bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki. In fact, all American presidents have refused to apologize for the bombings, which occurred 75 years ago.
Unfortunately, the Japanese government refuses to appropriately apologize for the Nanjing Massacre, where horrible acts committed by Japanese soldiers against Chinese men, women and children took place between late 1937 and early 1938.
Material recompensation incurred by Germany has been estimated as approximately €1.5 billion to 2006 exchange values, which equals to about 2% of all material losses of Poland, not including enormous loss of human population of about 6 million people.
Reunification. After the fall of the Berlin Wall in 1989 and the subsequent reunification of East Germany and West Germany, the country had to update its military policies because of reunification. It was allowed to possess war equipment again and introduced the Bundeswehr which is an all-volunteer force.
Germany is Israel's most important economic partner in the EU , with bilateral trade worth 6.6 billion US dollars (2020). Products made in Germany enjoy an excellent reputation, and German firms are well positioned to bid on Israeli infrastructure projects.