In Europe, France and the UK are the only countries with nuclear weapons. Together they are estimated to have 515 nuclear warheads, of which 400 are deployed, according to SIPRI.
Italian scientists like Enrico Fermi and Edoardo Amaldi had been at the forefront of the development of the technology behind nuclear weapons, but the country was banned from developing the technology at the end of the Second World War.
Italy is the only G8 country without its own nuclear power plants, having closed its last reactors in 1990. In 2008, government policy towards nuclear changed and a substantial new nuclear build program was planned.
As of 2022, there were estimated to be approximately 4,178 nuclear warheads belonging to three NATO allies, the United States, France, and the United Kingdom.
France tested its first nuclear weapon in 1960 and is one of five nuclear weapon states recognized under the NPT. It currently possesses the world's fourth largest nuclear stockpile, deliverable by submarine and air-launched cruise missiles.
Nuclear weapons are unique, and the circumstances in which NATO might contemplate the use of them are extremely remote. However, if the fundamental security of any Ally were to be threatened, NATO has the capabilities and resolve to defend itself – including with nuclear weapons.
NATO. Of the three nuclear powers in NATO (France, the United Kingdom and the United States), only the United States is known to have provided weapons for nuclear sharing. As of November 2009, Belgium, Germany, Italy, the Netherlands and Turkey are hosting U.S. nuclear weapons as part of NATO's nuclear sharing policy.
A new study sponsored by the American Physical Society concludes that U.S. systems for intercepting intercontinental ballistic missiles cannot be relied on to counter even a limited nuclear strike and are unlikely to achieve reliability within the next 15 years.
Russia's Tsar bomba: World's most powerful nuclear weapon of mass destruction. The Tsar bomba exploded about 4 km above the ground and reportedly produced a mushroom cloud 60 km high.
Canada does not have nuclear, chemical, or biological weapons or relevant delivery systems, and is a member in good standing of all relevant nonproliferation treaties and regimes.
Like every member state of the NATO alliance, Spain is covered by the US nuclear umbrella, but unlike many others, it had initiated a military nuclear programme before eventually backtracking. It does not host nuclear weapons either, due to a strong anti-nuclear sentiment from the Spanish public opinion.
Nine countries possess nuclear weapons: the United States, Russia, France, China, the United Kingdom, Pakistan, India, Israel, and North Korea. In total, the global nuclear stockpile is close to 13,000 weapons.
Japan does not possess any programs for the development of weapons of mass destruction (WMD), but it is the only non-nuclear weapon state in possession of a full nuclear fuel cycle and has advanced WMD-relevant industries.
Halting an atomic weapon is theoretically possible, say experts, but in reality is an enormous challenge. The Russian invasion of Ukraine has raised the fear of nuclear weapons to a level not seen since the Cold War.
The combined total of Nato military personnel currently exceeds 5.4 million – around four times as many as Russia, according to Statista. It has about five times as many aircraft, four times as many armoured vehicles and three times as many military ships.
There is no real credible capability to shoot down an incoming intercontinental ballistic missile. No nation really has a credible capability in this respect. Whilst anti-ballistic missile technology exists, current technological advances do not stretch to a capable system to protect against even a limited ICBM attack.
Seek shelter indoors, preferably underground and in a brick or concrete building, per the Red Cross and FEMA. Go as far underground as possible, per the Red Cross and FEMA. If that's not possible, try to stay in the center of the building, for example in a stairwell.
Make sure you have an Emergency Supply Kit for places you frequent and might have to stay for 24 hours. It should include bottled water, packaged foods, emergency medicines, a hand-crank or battery- powered radio to get information in case power is out, a flashlight, and extra batteries for essential items.
According to a peer-reviewed study published in the journal Nature Food in August 2022, a full-scale nuclear war between the U.S. and Russia would kill 360 million people directly and more than 5 billion people would die from starvation.
Nuclear stockpile – Currently 225 warheads. Under the 2021 Integrated Review the cap on the UK's nuclear stockpile, will increase to no more than 260 warheads, a 40% increase on previous commitments. The UK is the only nuclear weapon state that has reduced to a single deterrent system.
Australia does not possess any nuclear weapons and is not seeking to become a nuclear weapon state. Australia's core obligations as a non-nuclear-weapon state are set out in the NPT. They include a solemn undertaking not to acquire nuclear weapons.
Poland is not known or believed to possess weapons of mass destruction. During the Cold War, Soviet nuclear warheads were stockpiled in Poland and designated to deploy within the People's Army of Poland.